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An almost unknown piece of good news is that Caffeine may prevent heart disease death in the elderly!
Researchers at SUNY Downstate Medical Center and Brooklyn College say that Habitual intake of caffeinated beverages provides protection against heart disease mortality in the elderly. Data from the first federal National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, offered researchers a survey of participants 65 years old or more who had higher caffeinated beverage intake. The survey exhibited lower relative risk of coronary vascular disease and heart mortality than did statistics from participants with lower caffeinated beverage intake.
"John Kassotis, MD, associate professor of medicine at SUNY Downstate, said, "The protection against death from heart disease in the elderly afforded by caffeine is likely due to caffeine's enhancement of blood pressure." The protective effect also was found to be dose-responsive: the higher the caffeine intake the stronger the protection. The protective effect was found only in participants who were not severely hypertensive. No significant protective effect was in patients below the age of 65. No protective effect was found against cerebrovascular disease mortality – death from stroke – regardless of age."
Source: SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Thirty years ago, Harvard researchers declared that they had discovered a link between coffee consumption and cancer.*
Coffee became a tabu substance, not recommended by your Doctor for more than dietary aid or as a nausea preventive (oddly enough) during chemotherapy for cancer! Everyone was encouraged to drink decaffeinated coffee, which, at the time, tasted terrible. Thirty years ago we did not know to tell our Doctors that chlorine used to extract caffeine from the coffee bean was giving us a bad headache. Decaffeinated coffee soon became a lot more tasty and pleasant with Swiss Water Filtrated Extraction, a natural technique that left no poisonous chlorine residue. Looking back, I wonder whether I still suffer from post sub syndrome- some sort of iatrogenic disorder from attempting to enjoy Dandelion coffee, Postum, and weak, poisoned decaf!!
* Harvard researchers' earlier discovery may have been with regard to the sale of PABA as a topical sun screen, a substance that is prohibited by the Government of Canada for use in skin treatment, due to the discovery that P-AMINOBENZOIC ACID, itself, might be carcinogenic.This, however does not prevent the natural effects of PABA in food substances from effecting some skin protection.
*Harvard Health Publications, Harvard Medical School, 2006
An earlier article in PhysOrb suggests that men may satisfactorily guard their prostates from cancer; that coffee can also guard against skin cancer.
This article, which is negative toward some of the effects of coffee, states that coffee actually destroys PABA, which, recently, has been linked to cancer.
also see SOURCES: Nutrition Info, also link to: PhysOrb, news 6067
When I sourced this last bit of information, the article link had been saved and posted by a Hawaiian coffee website. The author states that Hawaiis' Kona coffee is rather superior because there are less digestive side effects, if you happen to have a sensitive tum. Kona coffee is highly desirable, but even to our Roastery, the cost of this as an import makes selling a pound of it prohibitive, unless to millionaires. Still, if you love you and you deserve the luxury, go for it!!! Mountain Thunder (& check out that history page: 'Kona Typica - coffea arabica'!
Amongst many new discoveries is the suggestion that Coffee can help in the prevention and treatment of diseases and illnesses as varied as Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, liver disease, skin cancer, and more. Coffee may reduce the risk of developing gallstones, discourage the development of colon cancer**, improve cognitive function, reduce the risk of liver damage in people at high risk for liver disease, and reduce the risk of Parkinson's disease.
Coffee has also been shown to improve endurance performance in long-duration physical activities.
An unexpected outcome linked to coffee drinking could be a lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease, since coffee produces a lot of antioxidant, a factor discovered to help reduce the risk of becoming senile from disorders like Alzheimers. Researchers collected data on coffee drinking habits from a large group of Finnish women in the 1970s and 1980s.They used a traditionalboiling method for coffeemaking. Those who drank three to five cups of coffee daily were 65 percent less likely to be diagnosed with Alzheimer’s 20 to 30 years later (Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, Jan. 2009).
SOURCE: Alzheimers reference
SOURCE: Antioxidant Mito-Q and Alzheimers
SOURCE: About Targeted Mito-Qn.b. Mito-Q is a pharmaceutical source of COQ10 (ubiquitol)
SOURCE: Peoples Pharmacy
SOURCE: Scholarly Articles: Espresso Coffee The Science of Quality
SOURCE: Coffee Benefits/Coffee Detective
ALSO: Methods of Coffee Preparation
Re: boiled coffee and cholesterol
**further study: A compound forming in the coffee bean after the roasting process may prevent colon cancer.
Seldom are consumers encouraged by health news made public,to enjoy their little weaknesses, coffee, a beer, perhaps- no, we must be pure for our med crowd; self-indulgence is suspect!
No salted chips and pretzels, now! It will raise our blood pressure.All food is jammed with filthy saturated fat genetically engineered into the overly process crap we just lo-o-o-o-ve,all so that we may clog our arteries, and get away from nutrition nags by dying of an early stroke!
Now there is even a warning that whole wheat bread and orange juice concentrate will both make you fat around the tummy. Damn them! ("The bastards", as my friend will say, though some of these nutritionists may be 25 year old beauties. "You are naiive, my dear", I will think at these puritans, for I have been there, myself; I was young and thin, I ate and imbibed only pure foods, and I was a yogin. Young people have no sense about ageing or the needs of middle age. They only care about Vogue 'l'image'. Fie on all of these.
Good news, though, recently televized news that coffee and chocolate have health benefits has come as a delightful surprise.
Evidence has accumulated that has resulted in even public bulletins from the contemptuous (dis)tasters department. Now, as a surprise, we can enjoy health benefits from both coffee and chocolate (albeit Doctors specify dark chocolate!)
Coffee drinkers appear to be at lower risk for developing type 2 diabetes (Nutrition Reviews, Apr. 2007). Several studies support this association and, if proven true, it could represent a huge public health advantage.
Coffee is a complex mixture of chemicals and provides more antioxidants in the diet than many other foods, including many vegetables. That may explain why it is associated with a reduced risk of several cancers including those of the mouth, throat and esophagus (American Journal of Epidemiology, Dec. 15, 2008). Other cancers (colon, liver and endometrium) also appear less common among coffee drinkers (International Journal of Cancer, Apr. 1, 2009).
Women who drink at least four cups of coffee a day appear to be somewhat less likely to suffer a stroke than women who sip less than one cup a month (Circulation, online, Feb. 16, 2009). Coffee may also have some protective effect against heart disease, but the research is contradictory. That might be in part because unfiltered coffee actually seems to raise cholesterol levels.
"Coffee is a complex mixture of chemicals that provides significant amounts of chlorogenic acid and caffeine.
Unfiltered coffee is a significant source of cafestol and kahweol, which are diterpenes that have been implicated in the cholesterol-raising effects of coffee.
The results of epidemiological research suggest that coffee consumption may help prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease and liver disease (cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma).
Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, coffee consumption is associated with increases in several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure and plasma homocysteine.
At present, there is little evidence that coffee consumption increases the risk of cancer. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3–4 cups/d providing 300–400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. However, some groups, including people with hypertension, children, adolescents, and the elderly, may be more vulnerable to the adverse effects of caffeine."
"..coffee seems to act on sugar metabolism, reducing the risk of developing diabetes (Van Dam and Feskens, 2002; Rosengren et al., 2004; Salazar-Martinez et al., 2004), which could be explained by the fact that caffeine enhances patients’ perception of hypoglycaemia, helping them to react accordingly (Kerr et al., 1993; Debrah et al., 1996; Watson et al., 2000; Keijzers et al., 2002). Recently, the quinic fraction of coffee has also been studied for its effects on glucose metabolism (Johnson et al., 2003; Shearer et al., 2003)."
Study on caffeoyl quinic fraction of coffee: The quinic fraction of coffee is composed of triacyltriglcerides, free and bound fatty acids, sterols and tocopherols.
SOURCE: Scholarly Articles: (Taylor and Francis Online)
SOURCE: Chlorogenic Acid and Weight Loss
INTEREST: Type 2 Diabetes after Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)
P. 8 online: (abstract from) Espresso Coffee
The Science of Quality
ISBN 9780123703712, Elsevier Bookstore: Espresso Coffee: The Science of Quality
Various physiologically active compounds appear after brewing coffee. Mutagenic compounds formed in trace amounts during roasting (hydrogen peroxide, glyoxal, etc.) and antioxidants like chlorogenic acids and melanoidins are sometimes used to try and correlate the findings of the epidemiological approach.
One may readily search glyoxal et al and the experimental observations with regard to immunizing or preventive qualities. For instance, during the formation of this article I typed in glyoxal and coffee to find the work of Maletta AB, and Were LM.
Various arrangements involving coffee and glyoxal were introduced into ground chicken meat so that the scientists could determine how effectively diseases like salmonella and enteriditis could be ameliorated by the substance(s).
Espresso Coffee: p 10, Coffee Benefits Health
The potential role of caffeine and adenosine has been stressed in reducing inflammation.
adenosine /aden·o·sine/(ah-den´o-sen) a purine nucleoside consisting of adenine and ribose; a component of RNA. It is also a cardiac depressant and vasodilator used as an antiarrhythmic and as an adjunct in myocardial perfusion imaging in patients incapable of exercising adequately to undergo an exercise stress test.
Mosbys Medical Dictionary Online
A nucleoside that is composed of Adenine and D-Ribose. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological Roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a Neurotransmitter.
"Xanthine derivatives such as caffeine and theophylline act as non-selective antagonists at A1 and A2A receptors in both heart and brain and so have the opposite effect to adenosine, producing a stimulant effect and rapid heart rate. These compounds also act as phosphodiesterase inhibitors, which produces additional anti-inflammatory effects, and makes them medically useful for the treatment of conditions such as asthma, but less suitable for use in scientific research."
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
Definitions: Online Medical Dictionary / Phosphodiesterases
SOURCE: Adenosine receptor on Wiki
SOURCE: Effect of coffee filtrate, methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and caffeine on Salmonella typhimurium and S. enteritidis survival in ground chicken breasts.
SOURCE: Melanoidins definition
SOURCE: Antioxidant Effects of Coffee Melanoidins
SOURCE: Espresso Coffee: Section 10.3 Online, COFFEE IS BENEFICIAL TO HEALTH
"Fruits and vegetables are often highlighted for their role in the prevention, or delay, of chronic human diseases by protective mechanisms that are not yet fully elucidated, albeit many plausible ones have been proposed and are currently under investigation. In this context, coffee appears to be a very interesting food plant, with a long history of use."
nb: By chemoprotection we imply all phenomena linked with the capacity of coffee to protect against the onset or aggravation of neoplastic (cancer) or degenerative pathologies (Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s).
SOURCE:Espresso Coffee: p. 9 online, Coffee Benefits Health
"Degenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s mainly affect the elderly population, and regular coffee consumption may play a preventive role, thus reducing their social burden. Parkinson’s disease has recently been studied in some detail with respect to its correlation with coffee, and preliminary conclusions indicate a neuroprotective effect of caffeine (and nicotine) intake"
SOURCE: Potential chemoprotective effects of the coffee components kahweol and cafestol palmitates, two components of unfiltered coffee.
SOURCE: Bread Enriched With Green Coffee Extract Has Chemoprotective and Antigenotoxic Activities in Human Cells (Taylor and Francis Online)
SOURCE: K/C treatment leads to a wide spectrum of increases in phase II detoxification enzymes
In genetics, genotoxicity describes a deleterious action on a cell's genetic material affecting its integrity.
When mice were fed specific combinations of foods in their diet, in order to test for an anti-genotoxic aspect of coffee as a substance, some of them were injected with freeze-dried coffee. The mice receiving the coffee enjoyed an enhanced genotoxic effect.
"An antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons or hydrogen from a substance to an oxidizing agent. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals. In turn, these radicals can start chain reactions. When the chain reaction occurs in a cell, it can cause damage or death to the cell."
A 2005 article on PhysOrb states that coffee is the number one producer of antioxidants, although "The potential health benefits of these antioxidants ultimately depends on how they are absorbed and utilized in the body".
Results of a study of antioxidant qualities in coffee showed that in roasted coffee, compounds called Maillard reaction products (MRPs) had high antioxidant properties.
Very high temperature conditions (about 390 to 480 F) transform some of the beans' constituents in complex physical and chemical ways.
This degradation leads to formation of certain compounds called Maillard reaction products (MRPs)or chlorogenic acid (CGA) thought, by some , to impart antioxidant properties to the coffee.
SOURCE: Genotoxicity on Wikipedia
SOURCE: anti-genotoxic study introducing coffee to mouse diet
SOURCE: Antioxidant defined on Wikipedia
SOURCE: Coffee is number one source of antioxidants
SOURCE: Read more at FYI Living: Antioxidants Present in Coffee
In a new coffee study, researchers discovered a new coffee compound: methyl pyridinium.
They sought evidence that this held protective effect against colorectal cancer.
The result: Coffees rich in chlorogenic acid or N-methylpyridinium induce chemopreventive phase II-enzymes.
SOURCE: Page of Interest Articles about Coffee SOURCE: N-methylpyridinium
There is evidence that regular coffee consumption may benefit organs asociated with digestion:
The risk of hepatic cirrhosis is reduced with increased quantity and duration of coffee consumption, demonstrating coffees' helpful role for liver function.
There is a report about coffee decreasing the level of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), an enzyme that is a marker of liver damage induced by alcohol abuse.
SOURCE:Also see: the chemoprotective effects of coffee against AFB1 genotoxicity are likely to be of relevance for humans.
Caffeine enhances athletic performance (in some activities- read)
Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. © 2009, Elsevier.
n.b. Mosbys 9th edition Medical Dictionary is available in print ISBN #: 9780323085410
"Glycogen is the principal fuel for muscles and exhaustion occurs when it is depleted. A secondary fuel, which is much more abundant, is fat. As long as there is still glycogen available, working muscles can utilize fat. Caffeine mobilizes fat stores and encourages working muscles to use fat as a fuel. This delays the depletion of muscle glycogen and allows for a prolongation of exercise. The critical time period in glycogen sparing appears to occur during the first 15 minutes of exercise, where caffeine has been shown to decrease glycogen utilization by as much as 50%. Glycogen saved at the beginning is thus available during the later stages of exercise. Although the exact method by which caffeine does this is still unclear, caffeine caused sparing in all of the human studies where muscle glycogen levels were measured."
SOURCE: Athletic Performance and Fuel- 1also see 'recommendations for athletes'-
"Glycogen is the principal storage form of glucose in animal cells. In humans, the most glycogen is found in the liver (10% of the liver mass), whereas muscles only contain a relatively low amount of glycogen (1% of the muscle mass). In addition, small amounts of glycogen are found in certain glial cells in the brain."
SOURCE: Glycogen Page, Orthomolecular.org
"As soon as the caffeine enters the body it is metabolized by the liver and broken down into theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine. From there these chemicals travel throughout the body where they effect various body functions. The most studied of these is the way caffeine is similar to the molecule adenosine in the brain. The molecules bind to the adenosine receptors in brain cells and block adenosine from binding. This causes elevated levels of adenosine in the blood which is believed to cause feelings of alertness and energy. The compounds also interact with the dopamine system in the brain which influences mood and prevents dopamine’s calming effect.
SOURCE: Caffeine Metabolism, Energy Fiend.com
"Between meals, cardiac muscle cells meet 90% of their ATP demands by oxidizing fatty acids. Although these proportions may fall to about 60% depending on the nutritional status and the intensity of contractions, fatty acids may be considered the major fuel consumed by cardiac muscle. Skeletal muscle cells also oxidize lipids. Indeed, fatty acids are the main source of energy in skeletal muscle during rest and mild-intensity exercise. As exercise intensity increases, glucose oxidation surpasses fatty acid oxidation."
SOURCE: Nature.com/ Fatty acids
"Glycogen is the key fuel for muscular tissue and when it gets depleted we experience exhaustion. Another fuel which is much more abundant is fat. As long as there is still glycogen available, operating muscular tissues can still utilize fat. Caffeine mobilizes fatty deposits and makes operating muscular tissues to use fat as the fuel. This sets back the exhaustion of muscular glycogen and allows for a longer workout.."
SOURCE: Lynn Allen Johnson Blog
"Fatty acids are an important source of energy for skeletal muscle contraction, particularly during exercise of mild-moderate intensity, prolonged duration, and in the fasting state. Plasma FFA transported from remote adipose tissue stores and triglycerides contained within skeletal muscle fibers are the major sources of these fatty acids."
SOURCE: National Library of Medicine (NLM), Effects of acute and chronic exercise on fat metabolism. Martin WH 3rd.
SOURCE: Coffee Labs
"Only at aversive doses of 10 mg/kg body weight (equivalent to 10 cups of coffee taken at one time) does caffeine induce a release of dopamine and produce an increase in glucose utilization in the nucleus accumbens, the area involved in addiction and reward with drugs of abuse like amphetamines, cocaine and nicotine. It may be concluded that 'although caffeine fulfils some of the criteria for drug dependence, the relative risk of addiction to caffeine is quite low' (Nehlig, 1999)." SOURCE:Page 13 online, Coffee Benefits Health, re: addiction
There are always pros and cons to the use of any substance, however nearly all of the sanctions and fears with regard to the caffeine content in coffee, or its addictivity have been studied more recently, resulting in discoveries that will let coffee improve your health.
p. 10.4.1.3, Coffee Benefits
Caffeine has minimal impact on other organs and no gastric distress (heartburn) has been found in association with use except for those with reflux.
p. 12 Boiled and non-filtered coffee:
Coffee helps you to stay slim for a number of reasons, but there is one exception!
The coffee diterpene cafestol has been shown to raise serum total cholesterol, if people drink very mild roast, boiled, non-filtered coffee.
Fear not, consumption of moderate quantities of either espresso or Moka type brews has no effect on total cholesterol, because the roasting creates elements that do not exist for milder roasts.
(Espresso is roast to carbonara stage or slightly less, therefore much of the caffeine has been roasted away)
p 13 online
"Acceleration in bone loss at the spine in elderly postmenopausal women consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine per day has been recently reported (Rapuri et al., 2001). Losses can be overcome by daily milk intakes (Barrett-Connor et al., 1994)."
"...Currently available evidence suggests that it may be prudent for pregnant women to limit coffee consumption to 3 cups/d providing no more than 300 mg/d of caffeine to exclude any increased probability of spontaneous abortion or impaired fetal growth."
"Some doctors have found that delayed food allergies may be responsible for autoimmune disease. The commonest of these are dairy products, wheat, gluten, chocolate, and stimulants like coffee, tea, cigarette smoke, nicotine gums or patches, and caffeinated soft drinks."
SOURCE: Vitality Magazine
SOURCE: Scholarly Articles: (Taylor and Francis Online)
Abstracted from a written work: EXCERPT FROM THE DRAFT OF: Espresso Coffee The Science of Quality,Second edition. Edited by ANDREA ILLY and RINANTONIO VIANI with the assistance of Furio Suggi Liverani
(Food sources of natural PABA)
(Sunscreen use now distrusted re: prevention of some types of carcinoma)